So-called “long studies”
French universities are higher education and research state schools where professor-researchers (Senior Lecturers or Professors) carry out both research and teaching works. Teachings are organised by semester, each one ending by an exam session. A degree is issued if the overall assesment of exams proves successful.
The Undergraduate degree (Bachelor) is issued if the student has validated his first semesters. After this general and theoretical course, the student can carry on with a master or enter a school on the basis of his application or a competitive examination. Professional undergraduate degrees also exist which prepare to professional life.
The student will be issued a Postgraduate degree (Master) if he has validated his four semesters following the undergraduate degree. There are two types of masters : professional masters, directed towards working life and research masters intended to prepare a Ph.D afterwards. This Ph.D will only be valid once the thesis is attended and open the way to researcher or professor-researcher positions.
These studies also take place at the university and recquire passaing a competitive examination after the first year. Medicine studies last 9 years when pharmacy and ontology, 6 years and students proving successful will be given the title of “Doctor”.
They offer scientific courses allowing to work in industry and select students on the basis of their application or through competitive examinations. The engineering diploma is issued after at least 5 years of higher studies with a master’s degree.